Kammer MN, Kussrow AK, Webster RL, Chen H, Hoeksema M, Christenson R, Massion PP, Bornhop DJ. Compensated Interferometry Measures of CYFRA 21-1 Improve Diagnosis of Lung Cancer. ACS combinatorial science. 2019 Dec 10;21(21). 465-472. PMID: 31022347 [PubMed]
Diagnosis of lung cancer patients with indeterminate pulmonary nodules (IPNs) presents a significant clinical challenge, with morbidity and management costs of $28 billion/year. We show that a quantitative free-solution assay (FSA), coupled with a compensated interferometric reader (CIR), improves the diagnostic performance of CYFRA 21-1 as a lung cancer biomarker. FSA-CIR is a rapid, mix-and-read, isothermal, label- and enzyme-free, matrix-insensitive, and target and probe-agnostic assay. Operating FSA-CIR at ∼40, 0.75 μL samples/day delivered a serum CYFRA 21-1 limit of quantification (LOQ) of 81 pg/mL with intra-assay and interassay CVs of 4.9% and 9.6% for four-day replicate determinations. Blinded analysis of a 225 patient cohort, consisting of 75 nonmalignant nodules, 45 adenocarcinomas, 44 squamous cell carcinomas, and 61 small cell lung cancers, gave a clear separation of cases and controls, not observed in the Cobas ECL analysis. The area under the curve (AUC) for the Mayo model increased from 0.595 to 0.923 when combined with the FSA-CIR CYFRA 21-1 measurements. In a population with nodules between 6 and 30 mm, the AUC increased from 0.567 to 0.943. In this subgroup, the positive predictive value (PPV) for all tumors by the CYFRA 21-1 assay was 98.7%. Our results demonstrate increased performance of the CYFRA 21-1 assay using FSA-CIR and represents a proof of concept for redefining the performance characteristics of this important candidate biomarker.