Horn SR, Thomenius MJ, Johnson ES, Freel CD, Wu JQ, Coloff JL, Yang CS, Tang W, An J, Ilkayeva OR, Rathmell JC, Newgard CB, Kornbluth S. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by APC/CCdh1-mediated control of Drp1 stability. Molecular biology of the cell. 2011 Apr 15;22(22). 1207-16. PMID: 21325626 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3078078
Homeostatic maintenance of cellular mitochondria requires a dynamic balance between fission and fusion, and controlled changes in morphology are important for processes such as apoptosis and cellular division. Interphase mitochondria have been described as an interconnected network that fragments as cells enter mitosis, and this mitotic mitochondrial fragmentation is known to be regulated by the dynamin-related GTPase Drp1 (dynamin-related protein 1), a key component of the mitochondrial division machinery. Loss of Drp1 function and the subsequent failure of mitochondrial division during mitosis lead to incomplete cytokinesis and the unequal distribution of mitochondria into daughter cells. During mitotic exit and interphase, the mitochondrial network reforms. Here we demonstrate that changes in mitochondrial dynamics as cells exit mitosis are driven in part through ubiquitylation of Drp1, catalyzed by the APC/C(Cdh1) (anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its coactivator Cdh1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Importantly, inhibition of Cdh1-mediated Drp1 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase prevents the normal G1 phase regrowth of mitochondrial networks following cell division.