Endothelial dysfunction is an important precursor to the development of atherosclerosis, and has been suggested to play a role in the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with end stage renal disease. Endothelial function improves rapidly following post kidney transplantation, but the long term change remains unclear. Hypothesizing that endothelial function would remain improved long term post kidney transplantation, we evaluated the longitudinal change of endothelial function, measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, from months 1 to 24 post transplantation. Given the previously reported association of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) with endothelial dysfunction, we also examined changes in the association between FGF-23 levels and the change in FMD following kidney transplantation.