Insulin activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus: a key mediator of insulin-induced anorexia.


In peripheral tissues, insulin signaling involves activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) enzyme system. In the hypothalamus, insulin functions with leptin as an afferent adiposity signal important for the regulation of body fat stores and hepatic glucose metabolism. To test the hypothesis that hypothalamic insulin action involves intracellular PI3K signaling, we used histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the effect of insulin on hypothalamic IRS-PI3K activity. Here, we report that insulin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and IRS-1 and -2, increases binding of activated IRS-1 and -2 to the regulatory subunit of PI3K, and activates protein kinase B/Akt, a downstream target of PI3K. Using an immunohistochemical technique to detect PI 3,4,5-triphosphate, the main product of PI3K activity, we further demonstrate that in the arcuate nucleus, insulin-induced PI3K activity occurs preferentially within cells that contain IRS-2. Finally, we show that the food intake- lowering effects of insulin are reversed by intracerebroventricular infusion of either of two PI3K inhibitors at doses that have no independent feeding effects. These findings support the hypothesis that the IRS-PI3K pathway is a mediator of insulin action in the arcuate nucleus and, combined with recent evidence that leptin activates PI3K signaling in the hypothalamus, provide a plausible mechanism for neuronal cross-talk between insulin and leptin signaling.