NOD1 and NOD2: New Functions Linking Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inflammation.


Although viruses have long been known to subvert the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for their replication, recent work has shown that this strategy is also used by bacterial pathogens and parasites to promote their intracellular growth. The ensuing disruption of cellular processes triggers a condition known as ER stress, which activates the host cell's unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore homeostasis. Recent work has linked the UPR, in particular the arm of this response that depends on the ER-resident sensor IRE1, to innate immunity and inflammation. Surprisingly, two intracellular innate immune receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, previously shown to sense bacterial peptidoglycan, were found to transduce ER stress signals to elicit inflammation. Given the known roles of both ER stress and NOD2 in chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and type 2 diabetes, this new link has important implications for understanding the basis for these pathologies.