Enteric pathology and Salmonella-induced cell death in healthy and SIV-infected rhesus macaques.


The goal of this study was to morphologically characterize a ligated ileal loop model of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infection in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) and to verify the occurrence of Salmonella-induced cell death in vivo. Eight adult healthy male rhesus macaques were used for ligated ileal loop surgery. Four macaques had been intravenously inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac251. Ileal ligated loops were inoculated with wild-type (WT) S. Typhimurium strain IR715 (ATCC14028 nal (r)), an isogenic noninvasive mutant strain (ATCC14028 nal (r) ΔsipAΔsopABDE2), or sterile Luria Bertani broth. Loops were surgically removed at 2, 5, and 8 hours post-inoculation (hpi). Intestinal samples were processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry for detecting Salmonella, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL), and transmission electron microscopy. Combined histopathology scores were similar between SIV-infected and control macaques. As expected, the invasion-deficient mutant was less pathogenic than WT S. Typhimurium. Neutrophil infiltrate in the intestinal mucosa correlated with bacterial loads (r = 0.7148; P