Is Surgical Menopause Associated With Future Levels of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Independent of Antecedent Levels? The CARDIA Study.


In the present study, we compared changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) before and after natural menopause (NM), hysterectomy with at least 1 ovary conserved (HOC), or hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy (HBSO). Data were obtained from women 18-30 years of age who were enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (1985-2011). Piecewise linear mixed models were used to examine changes in CVD risk factors from baseline to the index visit (the first visit after the date of NM or hysterectomy) and after index visit until the end of follow-up. During 25 years of follow-up, 1,045 women reached menopause (for NM, n = 588; for HOC, n = 304; and for HBSO, n = 153). At baseline, women with either type of hysterectomy had less favorable values for CVD risk factors. When comparing the annual rates of change of all CVD risk factors from baseline until the index visit to those from the index visit to the end of follow-up, we saw a small increase in rate of change for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.28 mg/dL; P = 0.002) and a decrease for triglycerides (β =-0.006 mg/dL; P = 0.027) for all groups. Hysterectomy was not associated with risk factors for CVD after accounting for baseline values. However, antecedent young-adult levels of CVD risk factors were strong predictors of levels of postmenopausal risk factors.