Xanthakis V, Enserro DM, Larson MG, Wollert KC, Januzzi JL, Levy D, Aragam J, Benjamin EJ, Cheng S, Wang TJ, Mitchell GF, Vasan RS. Prevalence, Neurohormonal Correlates, and Prognosis of Heart Failure Stages in the Community. JACC. Heart failure. 2016 Jun 25. PMID: 27395350 [PubMed]
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and prognosis of HF stages in the community; to evaluate if preclinical HF stages are characterized by elevation of pro-inflammatory (C-reactive protein), neurohormonal activation (B-type natriuretic peptide, renin and aldosterone), and cardiac stress biomarkers (high-sensitivity troponin I, ST-2, and growth differentiation factor-15).