HIV infection and biomarkers of inflammation (measured by interleukin-6 [IL-6]), monocyte activation (soluble CD14 [sCD14]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are associated with morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that these immunologic processes mediate (explain) some of the excess risk of mortality among HIV infected (HIV+) versus uninfected people independently of co-morbid diseases.