Williams AM, Tanumihardjo SA, Rhodes EC, Mapango C, Kazembe B, Phiri F, Kang'ombe DD, Sheftel J, Orchardson V, Tripp K, Suchdev PS. Vitamin A deficiency has declined in Malawi, but with evidence of elevated vitamin A in children. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2021 Dec 6;113(113). 854-864. PMID: 33751046 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC8023849
Reduction of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in Malawi coincided with introduction of vitamin A-fortified staple foods, alongside continued biannual high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS).