Xu HL, Hsing AW, Vogtmann E, Chu LW, Cheng JR, Gao J, Tan YT, Wang BS, Shen MC, Gao YT. Variants in CCK and CCKAR genes to susceptibility to biliary tract cancers and stones: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2013 Sep;28(28). 1476-81. PMID: 23701593 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3820582 NIHMSID: NIHMS482886.
Altered motility of the gallbladder is associated with an increased risk of gallstones and can result in biliary tract cancers. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important modulator of gallbladder motility which functions by activating CCK type-A receptor (CCKAR). The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variants in CCK and CCKAR are associated with the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones.