Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxins that can contaminate grains and oil seeds in tropical and sub-tropical areas and have been detected in maize and peanut products of Haiti. The first objective was to assess human exposure to AFs among Haitians at an urban hospital (GHESKIO) and a rural health centre (HCBH). The second objective was to test the association between AF exposure and reported dietary intake of potentially contaminated foods, such as maize, peanut products and milk. Measurement of urinary AFM1 by HPLC revealed that among 367 participants 14% and 22% at GHESKIO and HCBH, respectively, had detectable AFM1. The maximum and median AFM1 concentrations for all detected samples were 700 pg AFM1 ml(-1) and 11.7 pg ml(-1), respectively. Detection of AFM1 was significantly associated with peanut consumption (p