Polymorphisms in TLRs influence circulating cytokines production in Plasmodium vivax malaria: TLR polymorphisms influence cytokine productions in malaria-vivax.


The efficiency of the immune system has been shaped throughout the evolutionary process allowing adaptations. In a Plasmodium vivax infection, the host attempts to develop an innate immune response to keep in check the parasite that is associated with inflammatory and regulatory processes. Production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines simultaneously appears to be a balancing mechanism for the host to prevent the onset of severe disease. Changes in the dynamics of circulating cytokines production can influence the pathogenesis, severity of the disease and episodes of recurrent Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria). A cross-sectional study was conducted in endemic areas for Pv-malaria in the Amazonas State, Brazil. Several SNPs in TLR genes were genotyped by PCR-RFLP in 137 patients infected with P. vivax. Circulating cytokines IL-6, TNF, IL-2, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-4 were measured by CBA. Influence of the studied SNPs on circulating cytokines was investigated by applying the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunns' multiple comparison post-test. A Spearman correlation test also was performed to elaborate circulating cytokine networks and to demonstrate the level of interaction between each molecule. Individuals with genotypes A/G (TLR4 A299G), C/C (TLR6 S249P) and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T) appear to produce less/gain IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-2 and IL-4 compared to patients with wild-type and heterozygous genotypes. In addition, these genotypes seem to influence the interaction network between the molecules studied, causing a lower interaction, absence or even negative interaction between the cytokines. Data presented in this study suggests the influence of polymorphisms TLR4 (A299G), TLR6 (S249P) and TLR9 (-1486C/T) on the production of circulating cytokines during Pv-malaria.