Pilot Outcomes of Maisha: An HIV Stigma Reduction Intervention Developed for Antenatal Care in Tanzania.


HIV stigma is a persistent barrier to curbing the spread of HIV and improving quality of life for people living with HIV. We developed and pilot tested Maisha, an HIV stigma reduction intervention in antenatal care (ANC) with two objectives: 1) among individuals living with HIV, reduce internalized and anticipated HIV stigma, with subsequent improvements in HIV care engagement, and 2) among individuals who are HIV-seronegative, reduce HIV stigmatizing attitudes. We enrolled and baselined 1039 women and 492 male partners presenting to a first ANC appointment and randomized them to standard of care or the Maisha intervention. All women living with HIV (WLHIV) and a subset of HIV-negative participants completed a 3-month follow-up assessment. Participation in the three Maisha sessions was high (99.6%, 92.8%, 89.3%), and nearly all participants noted satisfaction with the intervention content (99.8%) and counselor (99.8%). Among 55 WLHIV, care engagement outcomes did not differ by condition. Among 293 HIV-negative participants, Maisha participants had significantly greater reductions in the moral judgment sub-scale of the stigma attitudes measure (p