Optimising medication adherence is one of the essential factors in reversing the tide of a TB-HIV syndemic in sub-Saharan Africa, especially South Africa. Impairment in key neurocognitive domains may impair patients' ability to maintain adherence to treatment, but the level of cognition and its relationship to HIV status has not been examined in individuals with drug-resistant TB. We therefore investigated performance on several key neurocognitive domains in relationship to HIV status in a multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients (MDR-TB) sample.