Mycobacteria are important causes of disease in human and animal hosts. Diseases caused by mycobacteria include leprosy, tuberculosis (TB), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections and Buruli Ulcer. To better understand and treat mycobacterial disease, clinicians, veterinarians and scientists use a range of discipline-specific approaches to conduct basic and applied research, including conducting epidemiological surveys, patient studies, wildlife sampling, animal models, genetic studies and computational simulations. To foster the exchange of knowledge and collaboration across disciplines, the Many Hosts of Mycobacteria (MHM) conference series brings together clinical, veterinary and basic scientists who are dedicated to advancing mycobacterial disease research. Started in 2007, the MHM series recently held its 8th conference at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Bronx, NY). Here, we review the diseases discussed at MHM8 and summarize the presentations on research advances in leprosy, NTM and Buruli Ulcer, human and animal TB, mycobacterial disease comorbidities, mycobacterial genetics and 'omics, and animal models. A mouse models workshop, which was held immediately after MHM8, is also summarized. In addition to being a resource for those who were unable to attend MHM8, we anticipate this review will provide a benchmark to gauge the progress of future research concerning mycobacteria and their many hosts.