Diagnosing Rhodococcus equi infections in a setting where tuberculosis is highly endemic: a double challenge.

Abstract

Rhodococcus equi infection is increasing in regions with high HIV prevalence worldwide. The microbiological features and clinical mimicry of tuberculosis infection pose diagnostic challenges in high-tuberculosis-incidence settings. We present two HIV-associated cases of R. equi infection from Vietnam and discuss the unique diagnostic challenges in such settings.