Stanifer JW, Muiru A, Jafar TH, Patel UD. Chronic kidney disease in low- and middle-income countries. Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2016 Dec;31(31). 868-74. PMID: 27217391 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4876969
Most of the global burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). As a result of rapid urbanization in LMICs, a growing number of populations are exposed to numerous environmental toxins, high infectious disease burdens and increasing rates of noncommunicable diseases. For CKD, this portends a high prevalence related to numerous etiologies, and it presents unique challenges. A better understanding of the epidemiology of CKD in LMICs is urgently needed, but this must be coupled with strong public advocacy and broad, collaborative public health efforts that address environmental, communicable, and non-communicable risk factors.