• Nichols C, Cruz Espinoza LM, Von Kalckreuth V, Aaby P, Ahmed El Tayeb M, Ali M, Aseffa A, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Breiman RF, Cosmas L, Crump JA, Dekker DM, Gassama Sow A, Gasmelseed N, Hertz JT, Im J, Kabore LP, Keddy KH, Konings F, Valborg Løfberg S, Meyer CG, Montgomery JM, Niang A, Njariharinjakamampionona A, Olack B, Pak GD, Panzner U, Park JK, Park SE, Rabezanahary H, Rakotondrainiarivelo JP, Rakotozandrindrainy R, Raminosoa TM, Rubach MP, Teferi M, Seo HJ, Sooka A, Soura A, Tall A, Toy T, Yeshitela B, Clemens JD, Wierzba TF, Baker S, Marks F. Bloodstream Infections and Frequency of Pretreatment Associated With Age and Hospitalization Status in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2015 Nov 1;61 Suppl 4(61 Suppl 4). S372-9. PMID: 26449954 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC4596935
The clinical diagnosis of bacterial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in sub-Saharan Africa is routinely confused with malaria due to overlapping symptoms. The Typhoid Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) recruited febrile inpatients and outpatients of all ages using identical study procedures and enrollment criteria, thus providing an opportunity to assess disease etiology and pretreatment patterns among children and adults.