Butt AA, Chang CC, Kuller L, Goetz MB, Leaf D, Rimland D, Gibert CL, Oursler KK, Rodriguez-Barradas MC, Lim J, Kazis LE, Gottlieb S, Justice AC, Freiberg MS. Risk of heart failure with human immunodeficiency virus in the absence of prior diagnosis of coronary heart disease. Archives of internal medicine. 2011 Apr 25;171(171). 737-43. PMID: 21518940 [PubMed] PMCID: PMC3687533 NIHMSID: NIHMS411107.
Whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) is not clear. The presence of coronary heart disease and alcohol consumption in this population may confound this association.