Using multiplex technology, the authors investigated the laboratory and biologic variation of a panel of cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) over 18 months and their relations to cardiovascular disease risk factors, hormone therapy, and weight loss. Data were obtained from the Woman On the Move through Activity and Nutrition (WOMAN) Study, a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of nonpharmacologic interventions on subclinical atherosclerosis among overweight, postmenopausal women in Pennsylvania. The present analysis (February 2002-August 2005) comprised 290 women aged 52-62 years (mean age = 57 years). Most of the cytokines were detectable in a majority of the samples, and the between-individual biologic variation was greater than the within-individual biologic and laboratory variation. There was little association between use of hormone therapy at baseline or change in hormone therapy by 18 months and cytokine levels. Weight loss was associated with a decrease in levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, and C-reactive protein. The results suggest that a wide panel of cytokines may be measured simultaneously from one sample. There is large unexplained variability in cytokine levels that is probably due to genetic-environmental associations.