Recognition of the need for a personalized approach to medicine has long been a focus of urology and our departmental initiatives. The impact of treatment-related morbidity and the burden of urologic diseases on national healthcare expenditures mandate improved ability to select patients for appropriate treatments and to predict outcomes. Image-guided targeted therapies, proteomic and genotypic profiling of tumors, and development of new biomarkers are important research endeavors in our department. Additionally, evaluation of healthcare outcomes and comparative treatment efficacies is a key component of our healthcare outcomes and policy initiatives.